The dos command name is always entered first it is usually written in upper case letters but the command can be entered using either lowercase or upper case
Always leave a space after the dos command before entering any of the command operation.
When repairing to a drive in a dos command one must always follow the drive designator (:) entering the drive designator is open and option for a dos command some commands are not related to disk drives so they do not require drive designation.
A path name refers to the path for dos to follow in order to act on the dos command. It indicates the path from the current directory or sub directory the files that are to be acted (;).
A file name is the name of a file stored on disk.
Characters in a command format represented by a letter or a number proceeded by a forward slash (\) this options provide special functions that can be used with the dos command.
Items enclosed it square bracket  are optional.
Ellipses () indicate that an item in command syntax can be repeated as many times as needed.
When items are separated by a vertical bar| it means that one can enter one of the separated items.
Two types of dos commands.
- Internal commands.
- External commands.
Internal commands are all contain with in a file called command.com
Dir (directory) command:
It list the names and sizes of all files
Located in a particular disk
Dir <directory name>
1. Dir /w : It shows directory in wide format
2. Dir /p: to see Result in page wise.
3. Dir /l: to see list file.
Wild card characters:-
(1) *: it allows the user to enter only a limited part of a file specification to find a file.
(2) ? : It permits wild card search for single character.
4. CHDIR CD
Displays the current Dir and exchange the current directory
Syntax CHDIR [DRIVE:] [PATH]
CD [DRIVE:] [PATH]
EXAMPLE C:\>CD PGDCA
THESE COMMAND CREATE A NEW DIRECTORY
5. RMDIR (RD)
This command removes the directory.
It is only possible to execute this command if directory is empty
C :\> rd directory
This command permits users to change the name of files without making a copy of it.
This command includes a file name and extension. For the source file.
(1) Cls clear screen
This command clears the screen. The clear screen shows the command prompt and the curser.
This command indicates which directories MS dos should search for executable files
This command display or set the system date
This command display or set the system time
This command display the disk volume level, and serial number
This command can be used both to copy from disk to disk and to create a second copy at a file on a single disk.
C:\copy c: file copy
Copy c: pgdca d:
12. Copy con
This command is used to create a text file from to the command prompt
This command input and writes results on the screen.
Sort [/r] [/tn] [drive :] [path-1] [file name] [drive 2:] [path 2] [filename] [command]
This command creates changes or deletes the volume label at a disk
Label [drive] [label]
This command loads the doskey program in the memory
- F7 it display commands stored in the memory with this associated line numbers.
- ALT+F7 it deletes all commands stored in memory.
- F8 it search memory for a command
- F9 from for command the number and display the associated command.
- ALT +F10 delete all matter definition
This command is used to restore the file that is previously stored using back off command.
RESTORE D: [D:] [PATH] FILENAME [/P]
(/s) [/b: MM.DD.YY] [/A: MM.DD.YY.] [/e hh:mm:ss]
/p :the program prompts users before restore the file that have been change seems the last back off or the files that are marked read only.
/s :backup files from both the specified source directory and from sub directories within what directory are transport to the target path destination.
/b : only restore files that were modified on or before they enter
/a :only restore files that were modified on or after the enter.
/e :restore files that were or earlier that the time enter
/m :only restore files that were modified seem the last backup.
/n :only restore files that were no longer exist on the destination date.
/d :display a list of the files on the backup disk that match the names specified in file name without restoring any files.
Microsoft windows consist of graphical user interface based operating system.
Microsoft released first member of windows family.
Microsoft windows 3.0 in 1990 Microsoft develop another versions with different and special features.
Windows XP is a line of operating systems produce by Microsoft for use on personal computer then name of ‘XP’ is short form experience.
The desktop is the control center for windows the desktop doesn’t contain any windows a few icons are scattered along the left of the screen.
Customizing the desktop:
Windows has a default desktop on it but the user can change the default settings these can be change by following steps.
Step-1 : Right Click anywhere on the desktop
Step-2 : select properties option
Step-3 : make changes as per your requirement.
My Computer :
This icon helps to perform the following task.
To see who’s on the computer :
Double click the My Computer icon which shows the drives access it displays the files and the folders.
To change the appearance of items of items in a folder:
Double click the My Computer icon click the view menu and select one of the following options.
Large buttonSmall buttonThumbnailListDetails
Open a file or folder:
Double click the my computer icon double click the drive that contains your files into open a file or folder double click on it.
My documents :
My documents make it easier for an administrator to back up user file and manage users accounts by collecting all of users files in on location my document is a dialogue boxes. It could be a local folder on user’s computers or a shared folder on the network.
Recycle bin :
Windows stores the deleted files in the recycle bin which is located on the desktop the recycle bin can be used to retrieve the deleted files or empty the recycle bin to create more Disks to receive.
To retrieve the deleted files double click the file you wants to restore go to the file menu and click on restore.
Components of windows :
There are various components of windows.
Icons: Windows fills the screen with the little picture or icons user can which the icon which is needed on computer displays a computer Icons is a small pictogram a computer icon ranges from 16*16 pixels some operating system can support icon ranges from 512*512 pixels.
Shortcuts :Instead of searching a bunch of menus to get somewhere a shortcut is created to create shortcut of a file or the folder right click on the file or folder then select create a shortcut option.
Close, Minimize & Restore buttons:
(1) Close button: This button is use to close or quit the program.
(2) Restore button: This button restore a windows to its previous size and location.
(3) Minimize button: This button reduce a program or window to a button on the task bar.
- Dialogue box :When windows require more information from the user it display a dialogue box windows also use a dialogue box to display messages for the user.
- Folders :Folders contain the different types of files and sub folders can be use to transport data wherever it’s required.
Application windows :An application window can be a program or a folder as require by the user.
Components of application windows
Control menu box :It is located in the upper left corner of the screen which allows to resize and position of the windows.
Title bar :It is located on the top of the screen it display the name of an application or the active document.
Restore button :It is located to the upper right corner of the screen this button controls the sizes of the windows.
Minimize button : Located to the left of the restore button reduce the window to a icon.
Menu bar :Locatebelow the Title bar.
Status bar :Locate along the bottom of the screen that provides information about the active document.